Japan And Indonesia Comparison Essay

Japan is often considered more "Western" in culture than other Asian countries. Compared to the United States, there are certainly a lot of similarities. But Japan and the U.S. do have many cultural differences as well. Though no people can be generalized as a whole, and, like America, culture can very from region to region, here are some things that stick out to American expatriates living in Japan.

1. Japanese attitudes toward religion: not Christian, and it's not important anyway. The vast majority of Japanese people identify as Shintoist or Buddhist, or both at the same time. Though Christian missionaries have been present in Japan for hundreds of years, there has been little effect on Japan's religious identity and philosophy. Therefore, issues that are based in typical debate in the Abrahamic faiths, such as gay marriage or teaching creationism in schools, lack a religious foundation in Japan. Japanese people's approach to Shinto and Buddhism is also largely reserved to traditions, celebrations and superstitions more than strong spiritual belief. For example, in America, a politician's religious affiliation may become the cause of heavy debate, but there are few such issues in Japan.

2. Japanese people tend to be more formal. This one is a generalization that depends on which region of Japan we are referring to, but overall Japan, especially Tokyo, is known for being "colder" than most areas of the United States. People stand a relatively far distance apart when speaking, and last names with honorifics are used. An example can be seen in different approaches to customer service. In America, ideal customer service is usually warm and friendly. In Japan, it is formal and unobtrusive. Waiters don't usually stop by tables to ask customers how the food is and what their weekend plans are, and strangers won't often chat while waiting for the bus. Physically touching is also more sparse in Japan than it is in America.

3.Japanese people are nationalistic but overall not very political. Politicians in Japan have a shockingly low approval rate. Politicians are quick to resign after making mistakes, causing Japan to switch Prime Ministers almost once a year since 2005. Japan has a Parliament system with many parties, and politicians don't tend to win with a majority vote. In fact, Japanese people have a notoriously low voting rate. On the other hand, Japanese people tend to have a lot of love for their country, and celebrate their unique history, language and culture in a way not dissimilar to Americans.

4. Though America is made up of people from many different countries, Japan is overwhelmingly Japanese. The population of Japan is about 98% ethnic Japanese, and the biggest minority groups are Korean and Chinese people. Because most Japanese citizens have an identical ethnic and national identity, seeing people who don't appear to be of East Asian descent can lead to instant assumptions of being a foreigner, whether tourist or temporary resident. This can affect society in the sense that because Japanese people view their culture as homogeneous, it is expected that everyone understands the traditions and rules of society.

5. Japanese people bow. Though well known that many Asian countries bow instead of shaking hands, Japanese people bow in more situations than just greetings. Bowing can be done in apologizing and thanking as well. Though in business people might bow deeply to a 45 degree angle, most bows are a casual bob of the head and slight incline of the back. However, Japanese people are well aware that foreigners usually shake hands and might readily offer their hands in greeting instead.

6. Japanese people will often live with their parents until they get married. There is much less social stigma about an unmarried person living with Mom and Dad after college. In fact, it isn't unheard of for newlyweds to live with one partner's parents until they can find a place of their own.

7. No tipping in Japan! Tipping is not done or rare at best. It can even be insulting to tip, as though its an affront on the employee's salary. If you leave a few bills on the table after eating out, prepare to have the waiter run after you with your "forgotten" item. In America, tips are, in philosophy, meant to show appreciation for good service. Considering that many jobs such as waiters that are usually tipped get paid minimum wage or less, tipping has become a necessity.

8. Space in Japan is more precious. Because Japan is an island country and only about the size of California, and much of the land it has is mountainous terrain, what land there is is precious and often expensive. Sizes of apartments and houses are usually much smaller, and yards are often tiny if they exist at all. Still, Japanese people have learned to adapt in ways to maximize space, but it can nonetheless be shocking for an American who might take space for granted.

9. Americans tend to be more direct and blunt, whereas Japanese people are more subtle. Being too direct in Japan can be considered rude. This can be seen in body language, too. People in the U.S. are taught to look directly in someone's eyes when speaking or listening to show they are actively participating in the conversation. In Japan, extended eye contact can be uncomfortable between people who aren't close, and eyes are often adverted. Japanese people also tend to be more reserved than Americans, and share less personal or sensitive information, often even with close friends.

10. Gender roles are strict. In 2012, Japan ranked an embarrassing 101st on the Global Gender Gap Report, which measured women's equality. America ranked 22nd. There are very few female politicians and CEOs. When women join companies, they are often expected to quit when they get married to become housewives and stay-at-home mothers. The concept of masculinity can also be very strict, though among youth culture - typically university age or younger - there is some gender androgyny celebrated in fashion, appearances and roles.

11. In Japan, social hierarchy is important. The junior/senior relationship is very important in Japan. A company employee who is younger and probably hasn't worked at the company as long as his older coworker will be a "junior" to the "senior." It is the same for students, especially in school clubs. In theory, the senior is a mentor for the junior, and it is the junior's duty to help out the senior and the other members of the group. These roles aren't non-existent in America, but roles are often based on personal accomplishments, and they aren't always respected as a rule, either.

12. Japan is a collectivist culture, whereas the United States is more individualistic. Japanese culture is focused on groups and communities. Satisfaction and pride is meant to be found within the group you belong to. In the United States, people tend to find satisfaction in their own accomplishments, and focus on their own aspirations. An example of this is that in Japanese business culture, employees tend to work for one company for their entire lives. Company loyalty is valued, and promotions are often given on a seniority basis. In America, people focus on their careers independent from the companies they work for, and will often change companies a number of times throughout their professional lives. Promotions are supposed to be given on a basis of merit. In Japan, this can also influence a mindset of how people live in society. People tend to follow rules more seriously, from something as simple as trying not to litter - which makes big cities like Tokyo surprisingly clean.

Indonesia–Japan relations are foreign bilateral relations between Indonesia and Japan. Both are two Asian nations which share historical, economic, and political ties. Both nations went through a difficult period in World War II when the then Dutch East Indies was occupied by the Imperial Japanese Army for three-and-a-half years.[1] Japan is a major trading partner for Indonesia.[2] Japan is Indonesia's largest export partner and also a major donor of development aid to Indonesia through Japan International Cooperation Agency. Indonesia is a vital supplier of natural resources such as liquefied natural gas to Japan. Both countries are members of the G20 and APEC. Today in Indonesia, there are about 11,000 Japanese expatriates whereas in Japan, there are approximately 24,000 Indonesian nationals working and training.

Indonesia has an embassy in Tokyo and a consulate in Osaka. Japan has an embassy in Jakarta and consulates in Medan, Denpasar, Surabaya, and Makassar.

According to a 2014 BBC World Service Poll, 70% of Indonesians view Japan's influence positively, with 14% expressing a negative view, making Indonesia one of the most pro-Japanese countries in the world.[3]

History[edit]

Colonial–era relations[edit]

In early 17th century Japanese settlers were first recorded to settle in Dutch East Indies. A larger wave came in the 17th century, when Red seal ships traded in Southeast Asia. In 1898 the Dutch East Indies colonial records show 614 Japanese residing in the Dutch East Indies (166 men, 448 women).[4] As the Japanese population grew, a Japanese consulate was established in Batavia in 1909, but for the first several years its population statistics were rather haphazard.[5] Beginning in the late 1920s, Okinawan fishermen began to settle in north Sulawesi. There was a Japanese primary school at Manado, which by 1939 had 18 students.[6] In total, 6,349 Japanese people lived in Indonesia by 1938.[7]

In 1942, the Empire of Japan invaded countries in Southeast Asia, including Indonesia. The Japanese seized the key oil production zones of Borneo, Java, Sumatra, and the Netherlands New Guinea (the modern day Indonesian province of Papua, which was also conveniently abundant in highly valuable copper) of the late Dutch East Indies, defeating the Dutch forces and were welcomed by many as liberating heroes by Javanese natives. Many natives saw as the realization of an indigenous Javanese prophecy. The Japanese encouraged the spread of Indonesian nationalist sentiment. Although this was done more for Japanese political advantage than from altruistic support of Indonesian independence, this support created new Indonesian institutions and elevated political leaders such as Sukarno. Through recruiting Indonesian nationalist leaders,the Japanese attempted to rally Indonesian support and mobilize the Indonesian people in support of the Japanese war efforts. The experience of the Japanese occupation of Indonesia varied considerably, depending upon where one's location and social position. Many who lived in areas considered essential to the war effort endured torture, Sexual slavery, arbitrary arrest and execution, and other war crimes. Many thousands of people were taken away from Indonesia as forced laborers, or romusha, for Japanese military projects where there was a very high death rate.

To gain military support from Indonesian people in their war against Western Allied force, Japan began to foster the Indonesian nationalistic movement by providing Indonesian youths with military training and weapons, including the formation of a volunteer army called PETA (Pembela Tanah Air – Defenders of the Homeland). The Japanese military training of Indonesian youths originally was intended to rally the local's support to bolster the collapsing power of the Japanese Empire. However, later this military training became a significant asset for the Indonesian Republic during the National Revolution from 1945 to 1949.

In 1945, with the Japanese on the brink of defeat, the Dutch sought to re-establish their authority in Indonesia, and requested the Japanese army "preserve law and order" in Indonesia.[8] Unfortunately for the Dutch, the Japanese favored helping Indonesian nationalists prepare for self-government. On 7 September 1944, as the war was going badly for the Japanese, Prime MinisterKuniaki Koiso promised independence for Indonesia, although the Prime Minister failed to set a date for this independence.[9] On 29 April 1945, Japanese 16th Army force formed the Investigating Committee for Preparatory Work for Independence|BPUPK]] (Japanese: Dokuritsu Junbi Chou-sakai), a Japanese-organized committee to work on "preparations for independence in the region of the government of this island of Java".[10] The organization was founded on April 29, 1945 by Lt. Gen. Kumakichi Harada, the commander of 16th Army in Java. It discussed matters related to Indonesian independence, although the later Indonesian Proclamation of Independence on 17 August 1945 was carried out independently by Sukarno and Hatta without the official support of Japan.[11]

Indonesian Republic–era relations[edit]

After the end of Japanese occupation, roughly 3,000 Imperial Japanese Army soldiers chose to remain in Indonesia and fight alongside local people against the Dutch colonists in the Indonesian National Revolution; roughly one-third were killed, of whom many are buried in the Kalibata Heroes Cemetery, while another third chose to remain in Indonesia after the fighting ended, some of them becoming decorated as Indonesian independence heroes.[12][13]

After the Indonesian Revolution, Indonesian independence was recognized by the end of 1949. In the mid-1950s, talks between Japan and Indonesia began on war reparations after the San Francisco Agreement was signed, and finalized with the Agreement on Compensation and the opening of diplomatic relations in 1958.[1] The bilateral diplomatic relations between Republic of Indonesia and Japan officially established in April 1958.[2]

In the 1970s, Japanese manufacturers, especially those in the electronics sector, began establishing factories in Indonesia; this encouraged the migration of a new wave of Japanese expatriates, mainly managers and technical staff connected to large Japanese corporations.[14] The Japanese automotive industry also began to dominate Indonesian market and today Japanese car manufacturers enjoys the largest market shares in Indonesia. Simultaneously Japanese consumer products began to pour into Indonesian market.

However the Japanese economic domination over Indonesia has led to the popular opposition that escalated into the Malari incident, (abbreviation of Indonesian: Malapetaka Limabelas Januari or "Fifteen January disaster") when anti-Japanese and anti-foreign investment demonstrations led to riots on 15 January 1974, during Japanese Prime Minister Kakuei Tanaka's state visit to Jakarta on 14—17 January 1974.

Japanese investment in Indonesia has steadily increased since the 1980s continued well to 21st century.

Economic relations[edit]

In 2012, there were between 1,200 and 1,300 Japanese corporates operating in Indonesia, with some 12,000 Japanese nationals living in Indonesia.[2] Japan has been investing in Indonesia for decades, particularly in the automotive, electronic goods, energy, and mining sectors. Prior to the formation of the Indonesian Republic, the Japanese had viewed Indonesia as an important source of natural resources. The Japanese need of natural resources was among the reasons that led the nation to advance further to the south in their military conquests during World War II. Today Indonesia is Japan's major supplier for natural rubber, liquefied natural gas, coal, minerals, paper pulp, seafood such as shrimp and tuna, and coffee. Traditionally Indonesia has been regarded as a major market of Japanese automotive and electronic goods. For Japanese businesses, Indonesia has been a location for low-cost manufacturing operations as well as being the source of various natural resources required by those operations. Approximately 1,000 Japanese companies operate in Indonesia which employ approximately 300,000 people.[15] Major Japanese factories are concentrated east of Jakarta with high concentrations in Bekasi, Cikarang and Karawang, West Java.

A new trend in Japanese direct investment in Indonesia has emerged as a result of increasing incomes, a large population, and the increase in consumption of consumer goods in Indonesia. Consequently, Japanese direct investment is no longer limited to traditional sectors but now also include retail, media, and consumer products sectors.[citation needed] Japanese restaurant chains such as Ootoya, Yoshinoya, and Ebisu Curry, fashion, retail and household appliances stores such as Sogo and MUJI, and bookstores such as Books Kinokuniya have recently entered the market in Indonesia. Taisho Pharmaceutical Co. recently acquired Bristol Myers Indonesia. .[citation needed] The investment of these new corporations is encouraged by the success of several Japanese companies. Ajinomoto is planning the construction of a new USD $50 million factory in Indonesia.

The trend of bilateral trade volume in the 2007-2011 period revealed an average increase of 11.97 percent per year, as the bilateral trade figures shows significant increase from US$30.15 billion in 2007 to US$53.15 billion in 2011.[2]

Cultural exchange and tourism[edit]

Japanese culture is known in Indonesia, aside from the classic hallmarks of Japanese culture such as kimono, ikebana, origami, or samurai, Japanese culture has also been known to Indonesian youth through pop culture phenomenon such as manga, anime, J-pop, and video games. Popular Japanese animation programming such as Doraemon gained popularity among Indonesians. JKT48, based in Jakarta, was the first overseas sister group of AKB48, a popular J-pop band. Conversely, many Japanese have become interested in Indonesian culture. Indonesian cultural icons such as batik, gamelan, and Indonesian dances have gained Japanese attention. Bali and Borobudur have become popular destinations for Japanese tourists: Japan is one of the largest sources of tourism in Bali.

There are over 85,000 Indonesians studying the Japanese language, the largest number in Southeast Asia and the sixth largest in the world. The Indonesian interest in the Japanese language has been kindled by the increasing amount of Japanese business in Indonesia since 1980 s and the sizable number of Japanese tourists visiting Indonesia. Proficiency in Japanese has become quite an asset for Indonesian workers.

In Jakarta, Grand Wijaya Center and Blok M have clusters of businesses catering to Japanese expatriates, including restaurants and supermarkets selling imported food products; Blok M, in particular.[16] As a result of the high number of Japanese–style businesses and entertainments, the area around Blok M and Melawai Raya Street have come to be known as Jakarta's "Little Tokyo".[17]

In 2014, The Japanese government abolished visa requirements for Indonesian citizens who possess an ordinary biometric passport in an effort to increase people-to-people exchanges between Japan and Indonesia.[18]

Japanese development aid[edit]

Japan is one of the largest donors of development aid to Indonesia; this development aid is facilitated through the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) and through international agencies, especially the Asian Development Bank. Among ASEAN countries, Indonesia is the largest Japan's Official Development Assistance recipient.[19] For thirty years, between 1967 and 2007, Japanese aid to Indonesia was provided within the arrangements of, first, the Inter-Governmental Group on Indonesia, and later the Consultative Group on Indonesia.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ abJusuf Wanandi (March 24, 2008). "Japan-Indonesia relations: A 50 year journey". thejakartapost.com. The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 23 June 2013. 
  2. ^ abcdNovan Iman Santosa (December 12, 2012). "Japan, Indonesia to strengthen ties". thejakartapost.com. The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 23 June 2013. 
  3. ^2014 World Service PollBBC
  4. ^Shiraishi & Shiraishi 1993, p. 8
  5. ^Murayama 1993, p. 89
  6. ^Meguro 2005, p. 65
  7. ^Fukihara 2007, p. 27
  8. ^Charles Bidien (5 December 1945). "Independence the Issue". Far Eastern Survey. 14 (24): 345–348. doi:10.1525/as.1945.14.24.01p17062. JSTOR 3023219. 
  9. ^Ricklefs (1991), page 207
  10. ^Kusuma  , A.B.  ; Elson  , R.E.   (2011), "A note on the sources for the 1945 constitutional debates in Indonesia", Bijdragen tot de taal-, land- en volkenkunde / Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences of Southeast Asia, 167   (2-3  ): 196 – 209, doi:10.1163/22134379-90003589, ISSN 0006-2294 
  11. ^Inomata, Aiko Kurasawa (1997). "Indonesia Merdeka Selekas-lekasnya: Preparations for Independence in the Last Days of Japanese Occupation". In Abdullah, Taufik. The Heartbeat of Indonesian Revolution. PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama. pp. 97–113. ISBN 979-605-723-9. 
  12. ^Hatakeyama & Hosaka 2004, pp. 676–677
  13. ^"秋篠宮ご夫妻、英雄墓地に献花 ジャカルタ", Sankei Shimbun, 2008-01-19, archived from the original on 2009-01-09, retrieved 2010-04-21 
  14. ^"Changing Faces", The Jakarta Post, 2008-03-28, retrieved 2010-04-23 
  15. ^Huge opportunity from Japanese investment
  16. ^Hara, Chisato (2008-04-23), "Exploring 'izakaya' in Blok M", The Jakarta Post, archived from the original on April 23, 2008, retrieved 2010-04-23 
  17. ^Little Tokyo
  18. ^http://www.mofa.go.jp/press/release/press4e_000498.html
  19. ^JICA Indonesia Office

External links[edit]

Embassy of Indonesia in Japan
The Embassy of Japan (right) at Jl. Thamrin, Central Jakarta.

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